lp nasofaring. Definisi Karsinoma nasofarin m!r #a$an % mor anas &an % m’ ()i)a!ra(nasofarin )!n an #r!)i*!$si)i fossa Ross!nm **!r)an a%a#. Novia LP Ca Paru 6 LP CA ORBITAN LP CA Colon Ihsanul Fajri LP CA Cervix Pengkajian CA Nasofaring-6 lp ca colon PPT CA. LP CA Lp CA LP CA MAMAE Bst CA d LP Ca Cerviks CA Laring, Polip Hidung, CA Nasofaring(2) LP CA.

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From the above mentioned data, it is clear that Indonesia is still an unexplored region with considerable NPC incidence, yielding about 12 new NPC cases on a yearly basis.

Patients are often referred to the hospital at a late stage, which has a major drawback on their prognosis. Cara pemberian iv, im, peroral, per drip infus.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Indonesia: epidemiology, incidence, signs, and symptoms at presentation

Finally, the need for and importance of adequate digital early registration of patients for treatment and follow-up of NPC also cannot be overestimated. Remember me Forgot password? In Indonesia, a steady increase is observed well before the age of 45, starting at early adolescence.

A recent study confirmed the poor awareness of NPC early signs and symptoms among regional health workers in Indonesia [55]. Sedangkan kemoterapi praradiasi dengan epirubicin dan cisplatinum. Epidemiology and etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Cancer Incidence in Five Continents; p.

During this infection, the EBV virus infiltrates and transforms submucosal B lymphocytes that are important for viral latent persistence and further dissemination of the infection to distal epithelial surfaces including the nasopharynx [4].

Toksisitas Kemoradioterapi dapat begitu besar sehingga berakibat fatal. Golongan sosial ekonomi yang rendah juga akan menyangkut keadaan lingkungan dan kebiasaan hidup. Tidak terjadi gangguan pola tidur dan kebutuhan istirahat terpenuhi. Aetiological factors and pathogenesis. Our data reveal that in Indonesia, the disease does not follow Chinese demographics and does not seem to be influenced by Chinese genetics despite the large population of Chinese descendants living in Jakarta and its surroundings, and despite that a high NPC incidence with Chinese origin is indicated in neighboring countries, including Malaysia and Singapore.


In addition to this peak incidence at middle age, a second peak incidence is described in the literature for a younger age group, 10 to 29 years. A number of studies have reported familial linkage for NPC risk, suggesting genetic susceptibility. Dosis obat sitostatika dapat dikurangi sehingga efek samping menurun. Interestingly, the widely spread use of incense burning in Southeast Asia has not yet been considered as a risk factor.

American Chemical Society Monograph; In the literature, an overall peak incidence is described at 50 to 60 years of age. Riwayat Penyakit Dahulu Klien pernah mengalami stroke atau tidak d. Besides southern China, high incidence was also reported among Inuits and other native populations of the Arctic region.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Indonesia: epidemiology, incidence, signs, and symptoms at presentation

Two centers were excluded because of too little supportive data. Selama dirawat di rumah sakir klien tidak dapat melakukan hubungan seksual seperti biasanya.

Lingkungan yang berpengaruh seperti iritasi bahan kimia, asap sejenis kayu tertentu. The consumption of some herbal teas, and in particular teas containing Euphorbia family plant extracts, is considered a risk factor.

However, our data indicated that neither patients nor doctors gave this condition attention until cervical lymph node enlargement, a sign of late stage NPC, was detected. Nasofairng disebabkan karena mereka memakan makanan yang diawetkan dalam musim dingin dengan menggunakan bahan pengawet nitrosamin.

Many environmental factors are considered important for NPC development. Jika seluruh saraf otak terkena disebut sindrom unialteral.

EVALUASI Evaluasi merupakan langkah terakhir dalam proses keperawatan, dimana evaluasi adalah kegiatan yang dilakukan secara terus menerus dengan melibatkan pasien, perawat dan anggota tim kesehatan lainnya.


The Chinese University Press; In high risk areas, cca as Hong Kong, the NPC incidence in each sex rises sharply from the age of 20 onward and also reaches a plateau between 40 and 60 years of age [33]. The incidence of NPC in other countries is generally low, and it is therefore considered a rare cancer in populations of the Americas, Japan, Korea, and Europe [1][11] — [14].

Virtually all cases of NPC show genetic positivity for EBV, with multiple viral genes being expressed in each tumor cell nasofarihg. Misdiagnosis could also result from patients who lack of knowledge about early signs and symptoms of NPC and cancer in general. Pengurangan massa tumor akan menyebabkan pula berkurangnya jumlah nnasofaring hipoksia.

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Bagaimana perluasan tumor ke jaringan sekitar dari Ca Nasofaring? Estimated regional incidence of NPC per registered inhabitants derived from 11 of 13 pathology centers in the year Selain itu faktor geografis, rasial, jenis kelamin, genetik, pekerjaan, kebiasaan hidup, kebudayaan, sosial ekonomi, infeksi kuman atau parasit juga sangat mempengaruhi kemungkinan timbulnya tumor ini.

Therefore, current efforts are on defining non-invasive diagnostic procedures based on EBV-DNA detection in blood, plasma, or nasopharyngeal brushings [26] — [28][56]. Mediator yang berpengaruh untuk timbulnya Ca Nasofaring: Makalah ini disusun dari berbagai sumber reverensi yang relevan, baik buku-buku diktat kedokteran dan keperawatan, artikel-artikel nasional dan internasional dari internet dan lain sebagainya.