KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.
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A combination of both values has proven adequate for grey-value filtering. As for the grey values, combined filtering of two shape characteristics has proven advantages, namely the so-called convexity and the shape factor: By using the example of titanium dioxide, this paper shows that both necessities are well met by the sophisticated counting algorithm presented here, which is based on the imaging of polished sections of embedded particles and subsequent automated image analysis.
The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST [ 22 ]. Starting with approximately 10 g pigment, which is assumed to be a representative sample, the following steps are taken: Publications Office of the European Union; An automated protocol macro for image post-processing and particle detection was developed. Preparing and applying a mask image, followed by particle detection Fig.
Open in a separate window. It is equally suited to both waterborne and solvent-based systems, providing ultimate hiding power and tint strength compared to similar pigment types.
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Errors introduced by stereologic effects may gain importance if the size of the measured objects is large compared to the penetration depth of the electron beam. We decided to develop a procedure that requires a minimum of subjective, user-based decisions. Krnos for the grey values, combined filtering of two shape characteristics has proven advantages, namely the so-called convexity and the kroos factor:. The sample preparation procedure summarised above leads to a sample with a high pigment density and allows imaging of several thousand pigments within a set of approx.
Introduction Titanium dioxide is among the ten most abundant materials on the Earth [ 1 ].
The resulting binary image with the separated particles is used as a mask for the unified image. The comparability is sufficient, as long as the penetration depth of the electrons, which is determined by the acceleration voltage, remains constant. The high reproducibility of the measurement, which leads to a standard error below 2 nm for all evaluated measurements, justifies use of the non-parametric rank sum test of Siegel and Tukey [ 21 ] to test krobos the measured distribution can be attributed to the same population.
You may krono a language below to continue to this industry or close this dialog above. The detailed settings are defined in the standard operating procedure and are listed below.
As an example, Fig. Experimental The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST [ 22 ].
However, UL assumes no responsibility or liability for the accuracy of the information contained on this website and strongly encourages that upon final product or material selection information is validated with the manufacturer. The cases of planes 1 and 2 give rise to a rim of lower intensities at the particle edges. The content of such third party sites is not within our control, and we cannot and will not take responsibility for the information or content.
It can be seen that grey-value filtering effectively filters those particles that are located fully below section plane 1. Morphological and grey-value filtering of the detected particles to extract the primary particles Fig. The correlation between a measured size distribution and the “real” size distribution is the subject of so-called stereologic correction: A magnification of A reliable method for sizing constituent particles in pigment-grade titanium dioxide; pp.
Feret particles mean std. It is a fact that there is nothing like a common or known particle shape for titanium dioxide pigments. Schematic view of five different projections of one agglomerate found in KRONOSreproduced from an electron tomogram. In the ideal case, the size distribution of the final products is optimised for the optical pigment properties, which are described by using Mie’s theory.
Preferred fields of application for rutile pigments are coatings, paints, plastics and building materials, whereas anatase pigments are mainly used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or food.
KRONOS® by Kronos International, Inc. – Paint & Coatings
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The grey values of the particles are important for the subsequent filtering of the results obtained. The milling beads are removed after the mixing process. The images a through e demonstrate that the projected area of the pigments varies greatly, depending on viewing direction.
The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology terms and conditions: The information presented here was acquired by UL from the producer of the product or material or original information provider. Reliable sizing methods that overcome these obstacles, and are practical for industrial use, are still lacking. 22360 sorry, but the industry you have selected is not currently available in krronos chosen language.
A reproducible number-based sizing method for pigment-grade titanium dioxide
The chloride process leads to formation of rutile phase particles due to the high temperatures of the combustion process. The effect of lacking stereologic correction, if significant, leads to a kronod which is slightly smaller than the “real” particle size.
All filters used are standard filters implemented in the software.