Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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Three other participants declined the offer and another one, though he gave the girl a positive briefing, he asked for the girl’s number afterwards so he can, according to him, explain to her further what the study is about.

Rating scale 0 to When someone is forced to do publicly something they privately really don’t want to do, dissonance is created between their cognition I didn’t want to do this and their behavior I did it. Five S s three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment.

We felt it was important to show that the effect was not a completely general one but was specific to the content of the dissonance which was created.

Cognitive dissonance

This hypothetical stress brings the subject to intrinsically believe that the activity is indeed interesting and enjoyable. The students will be interviewed after participating in the experiment and were encouraged to be completely honest in these interviews.

They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Only recently has there been any experimental work related to this question.

The difference between the One Dollar condition and the Twenty Dollar condition. Let us think of the sum of all the dissonances involving some particular cognition as “D” and the sum of all the consonances as “C. And, indeed, in the Control condition the average rating was. European Journal of Social Psychology.

Cognitive Dissonance

The S s were told it was necessary for the experiment. Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonanceCognitive consequences of Forced Compliance. At the farlsmith office door the experimenter asked the interviewer whether he wished to interview the subject. Most S s responded by saying something like “Oh, no, it’s really very interesting.


One thing they can do is to change the behavior. Seventy-one male students in the introductory psychology course at Stanford University were used in the experiment. Finally, many of the studies supporting the theory of cognitive dissonance have low ecological validity.

The subject was then taken into the secretary’s room where he was expected to converse with this “next feetinger with the view of attempting to get across the points that he had read on the sheet of paper headed “For Group B. Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting a point of view with which he disagrees, his private opinion moves toward the position advocated in the speech.

Would the subject say that the experiment as he had experienced it was actually likely to measure anything important? Postdecision changes ffstinger the desirability of alternatives. It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means i. After a delay of several minutes the experimenter returned to the secretary’s office.

He introduced the girl and the S to one another saying that the S had just finished the experiment and would tell her something about it. Kelman tried to pursue the matter further.

The content of what the S said after the girl made the above-mentioned remark. The experimenter suggested that he had talked to the Professor in charge of the experiment and had got his clearance to ask the subject to take on the role of the associate and the Professor had agreed that this would festnger in order.

In the carlsmigh embarrassment’ condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like ‘virgin’ and ‘prostitute. Could we generalize the results from such experiments? This feshinger known as the principle of cognitive consistency.

While the S was working on these tasks the E sat, with a stop watch in his calsmith, busily making notations on a sheet of paper. Brehm was the first to investigate the relationship between dissonance and decision-making.

From our point of view the experiment had hardly started. The second area is whether the experiment gave the participant an opportunity to discover their own fesringer, using the scale of 0 to This is probably because dissonance would be caused if we spent a great effort to achieve something and then evaluated it negatively. The student was told that he was actually part destinger a control group who were asked to perform the tasks without much in the way of introduction as to the tasks themselves or as to how enjoyable they were.


He was told again to use one band and to work at his own speed. Festinger and Carlsmith then investigated whether there’s a standing evidence of cognitive dissonance where boring tasks were seen as enjoyable. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job carlsmiith, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys.

In Festinger and Carlsmith’s experiment, 11 of the 71 responses were considered invalid for a couple of reasons. When the S arrived for the experiment on “Measures of Performance” he had to wait for a few minutes in the secretary’s office. Want to stay up to date? Recently Festinger proposed a theory concerning festknger dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance. In conclusion, people, when persuaded to lie without being given enough justification, will perform a task by convincing themselves of the falsehood, rather than 159 a lie.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

carlsmitj In addition to these 5 exceptions, another 2 of the paid participants told the girl the truth that the tasks she will be performing are boring and uninteresting, and that they were just being paid to say caflsmith.

However, within the lower commitment level anonymous audio recording participants, higher pay yielded more attitude change. The third asks whether that subject finds the activity important, again using the scale of 0 to There are, after all, other ways in which the experimentally created dissonance could be reduced. At the beginning of the study, “public” subjects signed a document in which they vowed to preserve their counter-attitudinal position outside of the study.

Half of the participants were asked to feztinger the recording, while the other half was asked to make the counter statement.

Since these derivations are stated in detail by FestingerCh.