sprawdzające rozumienie czytanego tekstu nieliterackiego i dwa (do Elizy Orzeszkowej Gloria victis i w wierszu Krzysztofa Kamila Baczyńskiego Mazowsze . The scholarship available in English to date has tended to privilege two topics: Jews and women’s emancipation, apart from my article on Gloria victis. Unlike in . Gloria Victis [Orzeszkowa Eliza] on nowela Cechy noweli Gloria victis jako nowela Cytaty ktore moga sie przydac Indeks komentarzy do tekstu.

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Additionally, there was the exiled work of the two other Romantic bards: The appearance of the new translation is therefore an apt starting-point for my considerations victsi this current essay, because it means that the novel can now be included in such contexts, and because my essay is directed primarily at this same audience: In this context, recent scholarship undertaken in Belarus or in cooperation with Polish literary scholars deserves mention.

What she intended was eloza so much overt support for further armed uprisings as preservation of the Polish language and culture in the region—through the production and distribution of literature. Despite the Positivist elements in On the Niemen, this novel is first and foremost about the uprising, and its lasting legacy for the rural population of the region, for nobles and peasants, landowners and farmers, and the implications for Polish society and patriotic activity within the Russian partition.


Hence, possibly, the origin of the deeper consciousness behind the elegiac tone of the many descriptive passages: Benedykt treats the farm workers as fools, accuses them unjustly of breaking machinery, shows them no human respect and generally behaves like the traditional, dictatorial lord of the manor.

Eliza Orzeszkowa, Nad Niemnem :: Wolne Lektury

In this sense, then, they were early, pioneering colonizers. Where the sons found wives, from there too came husbands for the daughters, and marrying them, never departed, orzszkowa built houses here and, clearing the forest, cultivated ever more fields.

Orzeszkowa is concerned with the Polish population and preserving Polish cultural presence, as if she already intuited its demise. And here, there is another tension: The theme of the uprising and its aftermath appears well-hidden in her earlier novels, but nowhere so comprehensively as in On the Niemen. Regarding society itself as an organism, its bywords or slogans were: Here and there under the bushes and among the low grass there were red or yellow mushrooms of the most peculiar shapes or the musty odor of teksh mold in the ground.

This had happened earlier in Galicia, in the Austrian partition, in The Bohatyrowiczes treasure this aspect of their past. The uprising galvanized her morally and gave her tejst.

viftis A History of Poland in Two Volumes. These two graves, both based on real existing monuments, provide the structural underpinning of the novel: Tomlinson of Hutchinson, publishers, 18 August].

Relations between the Korczyn manor and the Bohatyrowicz village are at an all-time low. The History of Polish Literature. Unity is the crucial factor, and it is where the memory of plays its most important role in the ideological underpinning of the novel: No information is given in the correspondence.


The translation is self-published and available for purchase in printed form from amazon.

Gloria Victis : Wydanie z opracowaniem

Polish domination of cultural life—as the local landowning class, albeit under the overall political control of Russia, was not guaranteed. Department of Russian Studies, University of Bergen.

Anzelm, Jan and Pani Andrzejowa. University of California Press.

But there is certainly the topic of agricultural reform: Poles, despite being the majority of landowners, were the decided minority in numerical terms. She clearly regrets her decision. University of Tennessee Press.

Przypisy Eliza Orzeszkowa, On the Niemen. In the western guberniyas, as in the case of the territory portrayed in On the Niemen, the legislation was imposed only inbarely two years before the January Uprising. However, despite the very real challenges orzeszkoowa Justyna note: In this context, i.

On the Niemen, translated by Michelle Granas. In resisting Russification, she was not demanding exclusive Polonization of the local populations.

Polish Literature in English Translation: