Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the. J Nerv Ment Dis. Feb;(2) Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ) in adolescents. Ruuttu T(1), Pelkonen M, Holi M. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On May 1, , H Chabrol and others published Validity study of DSQ (Defense Style Questionnaire. The item version).

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Journal of Personality751— The American Journal of Psychiatry3— This version was further modified to a short item questionnaire corresponding to 20 defense mechanisms which were organized into three second order factors: The fourth factor comprises neurotic defenses indicating an intermediate defense style that appears more private comparing to immature action-oriented and image-distorting questionnairre oriented defenses. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology28— Psychometric evaluation of a shortened version of the item Defense Style Questionnaire.

She identified significant differences in denial, projection and identification between age 11 and age With regards to specific defenses, it was found that 5 th graders scored higher in anticipation, pseudoaltruism and idealization, whereas 6 th graders scored higher in passive aggression, displacement, dissociation, splitting and rationalization. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Possibly, boys fail to acknowledge some aspects of external reality denial, dissociation while girls seem to reside to less pathological defense mechanisms. Peer victimization and attitudes about violence during early adolescence.

Comprehensive Psychiatry51 6— After the completion of the questionnaires, children were debriefed and thanked for their participation. There is someone I know who can do anything and who is absolutely just and fair.

Defense Style Questionnaire

Developmental Psychology47— Psychometric properties in three different samples. Current research on interpersonal acceptance pp.


I often find myself being very nice to people who by all rights I should be angry at. As discriminant validity indicates also the ability of a scale to distinguish different groups of individuals, we performed three separate logistic regression analyses see Table 5 to investigate whether individual scores in the four Defense Styles Immature, Mature, Image-distorting and Neurotic could predict: Journal of Research in Personality42— The response evaluation measure REM Boys appear to use more mature and image-distorting defense mechanisms than girls.

In the first analysis, it was found that Immature, Mature, Image-distorting and Neurotic factors were entered as predictor variables and Psychological Well-being as predicting variable.

Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents.

Empirical study of self-rated defense styles. Journal of Personality Assessment97 2— The third factor, also in line with Ruuttu et al. Perhaps, the lower alpha coefficients are affected by the fewer items comprising these two styles Zeigler-Hill et al.

Young adult identities and their pathways: Late childhood to late adolescence. I questionnaire out my anxiety through doing something constructive and creative like painting or woodwork. The second defense style had also a cross-loading more than. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: An empirically validated hierarchy of defence mechanisms.

This factor defwnse maladaptive defense mechanisms, reported also by Ruuttu et al. Permission to conduct the research was granted by the Greek Ministry of Education. Archives of General Psychiatry40 3— Psychiatry qhestionnaire Clinical Neurosciences58 2 In the present study internal consistency estimates for individual subscales were: Archives of General Psychiatry46 5— Can defense styles predict psychopathology in adolescents?

Prediction was good, with The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Nevertheless, all Cronbach alphas were greater than 0.

Our study supports previous findings indicating links between defense mechanisms and adjustment problems, anxiety e.


Although this sfyle has indicated that defense mechanisms protect children from psychological distress, most of the studies have focused on late adolescents-emerging adults. Natural history of male psychological health: Published online May Given that previous research has confirmed that defense mechanisms are associated with individual characteristics and psychological adjustment, perceived parenting as well as experiences with bullying and victimization and perceived psychological well being, these constructs have also been used in the present study to investigate the convergent and divergent validity of the DSQ.

Defense Style Questionnaire

Journal of Youth and Adolescence29 3— Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. Perhaps, intense anxieties and impulses stir in an intense need to displace and reside with passive aggression and splitting possibly strongly reinforced by the underlying Oedipal fears Waddell, ; 6 th graders avoid the recognition of some aspects of external reality to protect themselves from excessive anxieties, using dissociation.

The aim of the present study is to explore a the factorial structure of DSQ b to identify the internal consistency of the factors sub-scales emerged from the exploration of the factor structure of the questionnaire, as well as its convergent validity and c to test whether the defensive styles emerged from the factor analysis could differentiate individuals according to their gender and age as well as to the extent they get involved in bullying and victimization and the level of their self-reported well-being.