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The aim of the paper is to present the specificity of the concept of smart spe- cialization, its strengths and weaknesses, as well as examples of its successful use in the de- velopment of selected regions. It is also emphasized that the existence of an emotional bond with a particular place, the surrounding landscape, the community residing in a given area, the products of material and spiritual culture represent important determinants of territorial identity [Deffner, Mataxasp.

In recent years, numerous studies have been published which present the role of innovative technologies, products and services in regional development. Regional economy entities constitute the components of regional innovation systems.

Its first part illustrates theoretical aspects of creativity and regional development. A resilient region anticipates and prepares for changes, has the capability for learning and securing resources to use them in the process of outlasting shocks [Hudsonp.

Regions and, at a local level, communities, are legally equipped with self-government — administrative, planning and economic — instru- ments for influencing economy, space and society, which can be used for stimulating innovation in the regional and local economy.

Firstly, the prices are driven by Chinese art investment funds in order to get extra profit. With reference to real life practice, the activities undertaken by public authorities are expressed by defining strategic goals which should be verified by specific operational measures.

Adaptability is crucial both for resilience and competitiveness. A certain simplification may be adopted where regional identity represents the feeling of identification with a particular fragment of space which we observe as part of ourselves.

China is the only art market that has shown unprecedented growth over the last five years. At the same time, the regional, self-government leader is visible in the overall system and its responsibility for RIS implementation.


Selected creative industries stimulating regional development Source: Sustainable development has been defined and re- defined many times [e. The authors of the paper proposed a very simpli- fied and general model of direct and indirect effects of the development of a transport sys- tem of a region and their influence on its economic, social and ecological development.


In order to define relations between regional innovation and regional development, it is required to identify both endogenous and exogenous bwgg, which are responsible for creating and stimulating regional development and innovation in the spheres listed above, referred to as regional development fields.

Unlike Europe, the majority of art buyers in China are investors, not collectors.

Sustainable transport development prerequisites in selected Polish regions Strategy for Increasing the Innovativeness of the Economy in the years —, Ministry of Econ omy, Warsawhttp: Innovation represents, in its core concept, an economic category. Social inclusion, as the opposite of social exclusion, can be the result achieved by increasing the transport accessibility and mobility.

E Porter and C. If the work of art is more than years old, one would need an export license from the General Administration of Customs. Some authors define it as a capacity of the system to recover after shock back to the previous equlibrium or move to a new one or get through such a disruption and retain or regain the ability of regular functioning [Simmie, Martinp.


It is assumed that in the end it is human knowledge, skills, creativity and aspirations which decide about the attractiveness of any particular place, and establish its tourist, cultural, market, social and political potential [Anholtp. In all the mentioned countries, these motivations are quite different.

The vast majority of strategic development plans adopted and implemented in regions, districts and communes depend on quality oriented development of human capital resources understood as the strategic goal of development.

Generally speaking, resilience is a dynamic, long-term process with regard to continuous changes related to the adaptation of the region treated as a system to various disturbances. There is no clear definition of this notion. Publisher, Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne. The monitoring and evaluation function refers to activities aimed at finding out about the results and determinants of RIS implementation.

Benefits for a region from transport development Regional development involves the economic, social and spatial phenomenon. There is extensive empirical evidence that proves the existing relations between transport and positive economic and social regional effects. In addition, the conducted literature studies indicate that it follows the current stream of models adopted for the purposes of RIS in other European Union countries [see e. These segments are the least volatile and are not exposed to the influence of the recession, as was proved in — Such an approach unites ecological and economic interests [Jarabeenpp.

The golden triangle — the symbol of RIS — is constructed of three types of institutions constituting the triangle vertices, i. According to the China Contemporary Art Market Report by Artprice, the Chinese contemporary art market has become the fastest-growing contemporary art market in the world.


The effectiveness of business processes achieved through transport development is relatively easier to identify in freight transport. Summing-up Mskroekonomia specialization means the identification of unique features and assets of each country and region, highlighting their competitive advantages and clustering regio- nal partners and the resources skryph a specific vision of the future.

In the context of convergence and cohesion among the European regions, the promotion of innovation in regions that are in makroekonomix phases of development has been a central objective of European regional policy.

In the other regions, adequate Regional Innovation Strategies were prepared and accepted for implementation begv the period of — Transport both infrastructure and services can be an essential factor of sustain- able development of a region. Strengthening just one factor may turn out to be insufficient for the accomplishment of particular developmental objectives. In addition to the comprehensive analyses and models [Talley ; Weisbrod ], specific issues were analyzed, such as the skryt of travel time for passengers [Wardman ], the cost of congestion in cities borne by the company [Weisbrod, Vary, Treyz ].

For example, transport, maroekonomia factor of economic development, has an impact on the quality of the landscape, which is the effect of an environmental nature, and also has an impact on the economic development the tourist attractions of the region. The goal of this article is to identify these links and present them in the form of a model.

The focus of transport makrpekonomia depends on the nature of the region. On the other hand, however, these effects, especially the latter, are relatively difficult to estimate. Regional Innovation Strategies RISs play a significant role in developing competitive regional economies. Moreover, the top motivations of buying art in Latin America are similar to those in Europe — enjoyment, culture, heirloom and sharing.

Komentarz, Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, Warszawa The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of the definitions, goals and determinants of these three concepts and an attempt to indicate the similarities and differences among them. A contribution to the development of the research on the issue was the view of F.

Taking into account the fact that 40 years ago it was illegal to own a work of art in China, demand exceeds supply in this regional market.