BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.

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But the latter is as baumgarfen a part of his thought as the former. The word had been used differently since the time of the ancient Greeks to mean the ability to receive stimulation from one or more of the five bodily senses.

Indeed, Meier continues that it is by arousing our passions that art achieves its goal of a clear but confused, that is, manifold but densely packed, cognition. In continuing his discussion of poetry in the first GroveHerder initially emphasizes the broader reach of poetry: The faculty of approval, however, aims just for the pleasing activity of the other two faculties without their usual results.

In doing so we would also come closer to the language of the ancients and its meaning.

We can consider the cognition of the soul in different respects; either in so far as it is true or false, which I call aesyhetica material aspect in cognition; or in so far as alfxander pleasure or displeasure, has as its consequence the approval or disapproval of the soul, and this can be called the formal aspect in cognition.

MorgenstundenLesson VII, pp. Review of Meier, pp. Mendelssohn next assumes that only hearing and sight can convey natural signs, and then observes that. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Gottsched, Schriftenp. Stephen Bruce marked it as to-read Jul 29, Philosophical science, as afsthetica cognition, grasps the forms and principles by which sensory cognition comes to perfection. Now since the passions have a strong influence on sensible cognition and its presentation, aesthetics for its part can rightly demand a theory of the emotions.

It will be noted, however, that throughout Herder’s alexaander the notion baumgartdn play has hardly figured at all; it has been mentioned only in connection with the superficial art of painting rather than with the deeper arts of sculpture, poetry, and even music.

In this instant everything must be rich in thoughts and so full of meaning that every aestheticx concept makes its own contribution to the required meaning. Merg marked it as to-read Aug 22, Critique of Pure ReasonA 1, note. And art became, not the important thing it was intended to be, but the empty amusement of idle people. Your blog is needed very much! Influenced KantMeierSulzerWinckelmann.

Sulzer’s combination of the aesthetics of truth and play would in turn prepare the way for Kant, while Herder’s final work, more than twenty years after he completed his main work in aesthetics, would be a critique of Kant’s aesthetics.


This view of the power of art is what Herder finds missing in Riedel and perhaps even in Lessing himself. However, as he proceeds Wolff makes it clear that the intention of an architect is always to produce a structure that aesthtica both formally beautiful as well as useful and comfortable, so the perfection that subsists in the relation between intention and outcome in fact consists in the perfection of both form and utility in the building itself.

Siralex91 marked it as to-read Feb 25, These definitions form the basis for a requirement of perfection in the utility of a building.

Erika Terrazas marked it as to-read Jun 16, The Baumgartens thus arrived in Halle just after Wolff had been expelled and the study of his philosophy banned, although the ban was less strictly enforced at the famous Pietist orphanage and school in Halle the Franckesche Stift where they went first than at the university.

Thus in On Sentiments Mendelssohn writes that we. Lessing thereby misses what is essential to poetry altogether, namely that it communicates to us the real force of objects, including but not limited to actions, and thus most deeply engages our own force in response.


Above all things, one is to be attentive to the particular, characteristic thoughts in works of art, which sometimes stand like expensive pearls in a string of inferior ones, and can get lost among them. The discipline in its modern form is primarily concerned with issues surrounding the creation, interpretation, and ultimate appreciation of works of art, and so it involves how the experience of such material is mediated through the individual sensitivity of the beholder, and the way the experience of it is shaped through presentation by cultural conventions such as the exhibition and review.

Truth is the perfect perceived by reason. It is all the more worthy the more that the perfection of rational beings is elevated above the perfection of lifeless things, and also more complex because many abilities of the soul and often diverse skills of the external limbs as well are required for a beautiful imitation. Everything capable of being represented to the senses as a perfection could also present an object of beauty.

Winckelmann clearly belongs to the tradition that finds beauty in the truthful representation of the objective perfections of body and mind, rather than in the stimulation of the play of the aldxander powers of the audience for beauty. Kelly Turner marked it as to-read May 13, Art, as an imitator of nature, should always seek out what is natural for the form of beauty, and should avoid, as much as is possible, all that is violent, because even the beauty in life can become displeasing through forced gestures.

At twenty-one, he became a tutor in the home of a Jewish silk manufacturer, at twenty-five his accountant, subsequently his manager, and finally a partner in the business, in which he would work full-time for the rest of his life. To be sure, he often emphasizes aesthftica latter aspect of the value of art more than the former; for example, he writes. However, his criticism immediately triggered aesthetiva philosophical aesthetics in response.


Mendelssohn’s explicit introduction of the concept of play here, finally, may be just as influential for the development of Kant’s aesthetics as is his insistence that the aessthetica of approval does not lead to actual knowledge or actual desire.

The most general rule is simply that art should imitate nature, so that in order to be beautiful art must imitate what is beautiful in nature. On the contrary, in his view the causal relation between perfection in the object and the pleasurable sentiments of activity in the subject is precisely the sort of relation that gives rise to rules, although such rules will be fairly general rather than very specific.

This is the basis for the requirement of formal rather than utilitarian perfection in a building.

18th Century German Aesthetics

Preview — Aesthetica by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. In explaining this source of pleasure, Mendelssohn also makes another revision to the traditional theory that it is resemblance alone that is the source of our pleasure in imitation, because resemblance is easily produced by means far less complex and admirable than all of the faculties that go into artistry—a point that Plato had already made when he had Socrates argue that if it is mere imitation that the artist were after, he could just go around with a mirror Plato, RepublicBook X, d—e:.

But its ability to arouse our emotions also gives art indirect moral value through its capacity to enliven and make effective our otherwise abstract and not always efficacious acknowledgement of the general precepts of morality. What especially pleases us in the case of art, considered as art, is the reference to the spiritual gifts of the artist which make themselves visibly known.

A.G. Baumgarten, The Man Who ‘Invented’ Aesthetics | A R T L▼R K

Jean Gimpel, in Against Art and Artists, discusses the development of aesthetics by Baumgarten, and of course, does not see it positively.

What would he not do to transform his sight into touch, to make his seeing into a form of touching that feels in the dark…. Philosophically one could say that it is a piece of another possible world Schriftenp. Originally appointed to teach mathematics at the Pietist-dominated university of Halle, Wolff was inspired by both the mathematical and philosophical genius of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz —but published a vast systematic statement of a philosophy that was constructed partly although by no means wholly on Leibnizian lines in a way that Leibniz himself never did.