1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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Reduction involved the use of pressure and traction to correct bone and joint deformities. The second ql is a list of simple floral, mineral, and animal substances. So it is best to experiment first using the weakest [dosage] and then increase it gradually until you know the potency of the drug, leaving no room for doubt.

He has given clear description of Ankylostomiasis, Dracunculus medinensis, Mediastinitis, Phthisis, Measles, Smallpox etc. His philosophical views have engaged the attention of Western thinkers over several centuries, and his books have been among the most important sources in philosophy.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

Inflammations become febrile Loss of vigour. The Qanun is divided into five books parts. The substances are simple in the sense of not being compounded with other substances. Retrieved 6 September Roger Bacon and the beginnings of experimental science in Britain. Retrieved 16 August In the fourth period, both vigor and intelligence decline. He also made valuable discoveries in ailments now grouped under psychosomatic medicine. Bitter taste Excessive thirst Burning cardiac orifice.

Ibn Sina drawing by A. One should be aware that the intention is something else: Avicenna treated spinal deformities using the reduction techniques introduced by Greek physician Hippocrates.


Springfield, Illinois; Charles C Thomas, ; p 52a. Australian Bush Western Europe. This section describes blood and compares its healthy states with its unhealthy states. Water, although qanuj by nature, will give warmth qanu long as it is heated; euphorbium, although hot by nature, will have a cold effect when cold; almond, although naturally neutral, will have a strong effect of heat if it turns rancid; and fish, although cold, is a strong source of heat if salt is added to it.

Then a list is given in order of moisture.

The Canon of Medicine Arabic: Avicenna calls this humour “the most excellent of all” [8]: Medical scholars started to use the Canon in the 13th century, while university courses implemented the text from the 14th century onwards. The drawing of Ibn Sina on a Polish stamp.

The Canon of Medicine

Still much has to be revealed if meticulous and exhaustive studies are made in the Qanun of. Views Read Edit Tib history. If some of the drugs are inadequate with regard to heat when compared to the coldness of an illness, they will not be able to effect a cure. Symptoms are obtained through physical examination of the body at certain moments There are some visible ones such as jaundice and oedema There are some perceptible to the ear such as gurgling of the abdomen in dropsy The foul odour strikes at the sense of smell; for example that of purulent ulcers There are some accessible to taste such as tinb acidity of the mouth Touch recognizes certain ones; the qanjn of cancer.

That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality and functions, becomes softer, warmer and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air and vapor of blood dominate.


It is important to note however, Mustafa b. The gums are not full of teeth. George Sarton wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: He describes what he says are the ” four causes ” of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: Apart from the methodical classification and precise descriptions of aetiological factors and signs in his chapter on urinary disturbances, Ibn Sina pointed out the role gibb psychological factors in the treatment of certain cases of nocturnal nuresis.

The drawing of Ibn Sina on a Libyan stamp. For example, blood was considered “hot” as was mentioned earlier, therefore youth is assumed to be hot partially due to blood being more “plentiful” and “thicker”, according to Avicenna.

Archived from the original on 20 June Avicenna says that the third period shows signs of decline in vigor and some decline in intellectual power. Scammony, if used to treat a cold disease, would no doubt have a warming effect and bring benefit. Spirit and Life – Aga Khan Museum”.

He speaks about humanity, society, knowledge and ethics. Obviously, Ibn Sina the philosopher has his own views on education. The first part gives general rules about drugs and a treatise on what was called “the science of powers of medicines”. In other words, it is the art whereby health is concerned and the art by which it is restored after being lost. Avicenna describes healthy blood as “red in colour, has no unpleasant odour, and has a very sweet taste.